There are quite a number of groups seeking to test the feasibility of a possible capital campaign.
And, so naturally being a consulting firm catering to small fundraising shops, I tend to get asked to talk about these, and I am currently in the midst of one now.
What I find is that groups think that feasibility studies only test for one thing and that one thing is a financial goal.
I assert that there are many different types of things that a feasibility study tests for as a result. Financial goals being just one. In fact, more importantly, feasibility studies look at both internal and external perceptions and find areas of opportunities and challenges for an upcoming campaign. Things such as “what about that large endowment the organization has?” or “it doesn’t have strong fundraising leadership?” or “you need to ensure that so and so is on board and committed to launching a full-scale effort.”
Through a feasibility study, a group also finds out about potential campaign leadership, which by the way, can make or break a proposed capital campaign, other competing campaigns currently or just recently completed within the same community, and potential prospective donors to a capital campaign. Also, a capital campaign feasibility study will unearth the general economic outlook both nationally and locally and how will that impact the success of a capital campaign.
So, as you can see, a feasibility study done correctly will provide lots of data that can then be used to refine the case for support, determine if it is time for the organization to mount a significant campaign, and what is the recommend campaign plan based upon findings as part of the study. Oh, yes, and what fundraising goal will be feasible.
If you or your group is considering an upcoming capital campaign, I urge you NOT to skimp on the process of conducting a feasibility study. You will learn more than just – can this campaign make a go of it. You will find out exactly how much and how it can or cannot!
What? That seems like something so mundane. Well, it may be, but it is so critical to fundraising.
Throughout my professional career, I have been victim to bad databases, and I have been asked to work with bad databases.
One thing is for sure, without an initial thought out structure, problems are inevitable. I often come into organizations that have no rhyme or reason as to what they call their Campaigns, Funds, and Approaches. You know, one year it is called Spring Appeal 2016, and the next it is labeled the Mother’s Day Appeal.
Consistency is key. I see so much inconsistency that why bother having a database, to begin with at all. The way names are entered i.e. Mr. and Mrs. Smith or Bob and Laura or even Robin and Smitty or Robin & Smitty.
It drives me mad.
Having a database procedural manual developed with consistent data entry standards specified is critical. How do you pass this institutional information along when staff transition or do you? Do you let them sink or swim?
Hey, garbage in is only garbage out.
The most important thing is the question of who has access to this database? Who does the main gift entry? Moreover, I pray that your answer is a development staff person. Please, do not say that it is a member of the finance department, or even worse, a volunteer or an intern.
Provide those using the database with training in the software itself and budget for it every year. Moreover, don’t think that a cost saving is ignoring software updates and the resulting costs.
I cannot stress enough how important the database is to your fundraising efforts. It will allow you to be donor-centered in your work regarding recognizing donors and their giving the exact way that they want to be recognized. It lets you accurately report on giving and make comparisons that will affect the future of your fundraising efforts, and it will allow you to become more strategic in your endeavors through segmentation and greater personalization.In all of my career if I had to answer the question of “What impacts the success of fundraising THE most, besides the Board, of course,” I would have to answer, the database.
Moreover, folks EXCEL is not a database; it is a spreadsheet tool used by those in the finance department. Please don’t say that you cannot afford a database. Some great databases are available for a very fair and affordable price.
Pay close attention to your database – this is the brain behind your efforts.
Best practices. We hear that phrase often. This week, I even read a question asking if “best practices were misleading?”
Are we throwing that phrase around to legitimize our field? Our do we have best practices and what are they?
Well, I contend that the only true best practice is one that is grounded in research. Those are harder to find that than the other so-called “best practices.”
While studying for my Masters Degree in Philanthropy and Fund Development, I learned that philanthropic research has many gaps. However, there are people now making a study of philanthropy and conducting research. Folks like Adrian Sargeant and Jen Shang. More research is needed in our field to support our work.
I can tell you that when research is grounded in actual studies, it works. Eye motion studies, philanthropic psychology, etc., etc.
Recently, I have been working on many appeal letters. And, each time I craft one for the client, I get pushback. Why do you indent paragraphs? Why do you repeat yourself often? Why is there bold and underline? Do we need to include a P.S.? And, can’t the letter just fit on one page? Must we send more than one appeal?
Pushback that is unfounded. And, I push back with research. When the client allows me to use those best practices, the results speak for themselves.
When those results speak for themselves, it is magic. Campaigns get funded, new projects begin, and donors have the opportunity to make a greater impact.
We forget that the fact (and it is a fact) that we are not beggars. Donors want to give. And, to give, they must be asked. Asked in a way that moves them to feel connected to their core beliefs through your organization’s mission.
Know the difference between unfounded best practices and best practices backed by scientific research. Read blogs, stay current with trends, and keep furthering your informal and formal education. When you do, and you practice it, your results will show all the difference.
Fund development does have a researched body of knowledge. Don’t allow anyone to convince you that it does not.
What, wait, we hired that Capital Campaign Consultant to run the campaign, and now you are telling me that I have to do something. No, this can’t be possible.
Yep! It would be unrealistic to think that a capital campaign is left up to the staff to manage. How could they? The staff doesn’t have access to donors and to peer networks? A campaign is not a one, or two, or even three person job. It is even more unrealistic to think that now the capital campaign consultant is in town, no one
needs to do anything period.
So, I know you’re shaking in fear that you might have to ask for money. Well, yes, you may. But, that is not your only role in a capital campaign.
When running a capital campaign, I meet with each of my campaign’s Board of Directors and review the Campaign Plan, goal, schedule, gift chart, and Case for Support. I insist that they vote to approve these primary campaign documents.
And, I also share with them a Board commitment form that I have each and every one of them sign and date.
Board members have many responsibilities to a campaign. Below is my top ten list of capital campaign responsibilities and what I expect them to commit to:
Not taking on any major new volunteer roles for other organizations and consider how to pare down current obligations and be accessible to the campaign.
Review their philanthropic planning for the next year and perhaps beyond, as well as their calendars for those years.
Consider what role they could and would like to play in the campaign. Every board member will be responsible for some part of the campaign and will be engaged in identifying and enlisting campaign committee members.
Review their list of contacts – friends, neighbors, business associates – and carefully consider which of them may be interested in learning more about the organization.
Review and approve the capital campaign plan as recommended by the capital campaign planning committee.
Make a “stretch” gift to the campaign. Board members will all support the Annual Fund campaign each year in addition to supporting the capital campaign. All board members will participate financially in the campaign – to the best of their ability. The board will be the first to give. It is essential that other donors see 100% percent participation of the board. It shows them that the board has the utmost faith, confidence, and enthusiasm for the organization.
Ensure that contribution are used well and according to donor intent.
Read all materials given to them by the organization and the campaign. Members of the community – donors, clients, friends, neighbors, etc. – will turn to the members of the board for guidance and information.
Be an advocate for the organization, to the best of their ability, in the local and the wider community. Help expand the organization’s influence and exposure throughout the community by:
o Securing the sponsorship of a community group to support the campaign.
o Recruiting a speaker, host, or sponsor for a special event.
o Arranging tours of the organization for interested individuals, corporations, foundations or others.
o Hosting an event at their home, place of business or community organization.
o Endorsing a solicitation made by the campaign leaders, either by phone or by letter.
o Setting aside at least 20-30 minutes weekly to plan how to help the organization’s campaign.
o Thanking donors and staying in touch keeping them informed of the project plans.
o Evaluating the success of the campaign to determine strengths, areas of improvement and effectiveness of board policies and decisions.
So, I have a niche somewhat of assisting smaller nonprofits with their capital campaigns.
This niche can be challenging because many of these groups have not had an ongoing, comprehensive fund development program in the past. However, working on these smaller campaigns can also be very satisfying because I can help them use this campaign to begin to develop these efforts. I take those campaigns that a lot of other consultants won’t touch! Many while not having a sustainable donor base to build from, often needs a campaign without doing the preliminary feasibility study. They need the money, and the campaign must go on.
In the process, there is one thing that I have come to realize. The capital campaign steering committee is an absolute must. And, for these smaller groups, it becomes the backbone of their campaign. In forming this committee correctly, the group has the potential to propel the campaign forward. Without this group, it may flounder.
And, this group can’t include just anyone. It needs to include folks that can open doors to others have known networks, and believe in the cause. They hold some of these smaller campaigns in the palm of their hand.
Without having a known, loyal donor base, this committee can introduce the campaign to a wider net of contacts who may be interested in learning more about the case. They can leverage their networks to build relationships with, the can act as ambassadors for this campaign, and they can help, to ultimately build this organization’s future.
Not only that, this group can serve as a “feeder” system to the larger organization’s Board of Directors introducing them to a pool of prospective Board members who have deepened their engagement within the group.
Far too many smaller groups gloss over the importance of the who on this committee. And, by glossing over the who, they are, in essence, glossing over what it takes to be successful in raising money for a capital campaign. Let’s face it, without a loyal donor base, who else and how else are they going to get access to building one.
I purport that a committee group of connected individuals means success. And, don’t settle for anyone who says less because they are just fooling you into believing that you can pull this stuff out of thin air.
This weekend I took a little vacation of sorts. I ran a marathon. The Marine Corps Marathon in Washington, DC. Running a marathon is exhausting, but also, reflective. For you see, you run for 26 miles. That is a long time on your feet – sometimes, three, four, five, six, or even more hours.
Over the course over the weekend, there were approximately 3,000 marines – some of our countries finest armed service men and women. And, as I reflected on my experience, I was reminded of how important it is to take care of our donors. You see, the Marines took care of me while I was running.
They were there to welcome me when I arrived – how often do we welcome donors for their first gifts to us or even their second or third?
They directed me through the maze of marathon logistics – how often do we try to make our experience of being a donor easy for our donors? Do we point them in the right direction? Do we connect them with aspects of the charity that they care deeply?
And, then when I was running, those Marines were out there cheering me on as if I were the hero – how often do we cheer on our donors in their act of giving? How often do we make them feel like the superheroes that they are?
When the going got tough, they were there for me, telling me that I could do – when things get tough for our donors, are we still behind them cheering for them? Perhaps they can’t give us as much, do we abandon them as people? Or do we still treat them the same, cultivating the relationship?
And, at the end of it all – they placed the medal on me and made me feel accomplished – “Congratulations, Maam” – do we treat our donors like they are the real heroes, even though we are doing the actual work?
Interesting questions. I was awed and inspired by this display of honor at the marathon. The Marine’s know how to put on a good race. And, they also know a lot more about how to treat people. There are lessons learned here on how we should go about treating our donors.
Giving is MORE like a marathon than a sprint. It is about cultivating relationships with our donors over weeks, months, years – just like a marathon is about training for days, weeks, months, and years.
So, go out and run the race. And, even though it is your organization that is doing the hard work, take some lessons from the Marines and treat your donors like the superheroes that they are. After all, the Marines are making this sacrifice for our country, just as our donors are making another kind of sacrifice for our organizations.
So, here it is. I am laying this question and answer right out on the line. Especially now that we are coming to the year-end giving season.
I am asked time and time again, “Didn’t we just mail to them, won’t we be bothering them?”
No, no, and no. You can never ask enough.
Yes, Virginia, you can ask multiple times
Let’s face it. The decision isn’t ours to make. It isn’t. It is the donor’s decision to make. Only they are going to tell you, how much is too much. In most cases, if you are only asking once or twice a year, aren’t you telling them that you don’t need the donations to make a go of it? Donors aren’t naive. They know that you are a non-profit, and they know that you need donations to run your organization. Why do we believe that we must lightly tread when it comes to asking?
Donors are busy people. Just because they didn’t respond to your initial mailing, doesn’t mean that they don’t want to give to support you. In major gift work, if we don’t get the gift right away during our meeting – and in most cases, we don’t – we explore with the donor the reason for hesitation. Was it the program we were asking for a contribution? Was it the ask amount itself? Was it the timing of the ask? Why do we think that this is any different for the number of times we should mail to a donor? Perhaps the reason that they didn’t respond to your initial mailing is that it wasn’t an ask for the right project or the right amount, or it wasn’t the right timing. Maybe they had a big bill just come in that they needed to tend to or perhaps they were on vacation when the letter arrived in your mailbox. But, we won’t know this if we only mail to them once and then assume the donor will never give again.
And, I often hear clients question whether or not they should include a reply envelope in their newsletter because they just sent out an “ask.” Of course, you put an envelope in your newsletter. This envelope is a “soft” ask. Donors may feel so inspired to give after reading about your good works in your newsletter that they may want to give to support your work. How else will you capture this? And, a “soft” ask is exactly that, “soft.” We are not commanding, directing, or cajoling a donor into giving. If they choose to give using this method, then it is their choice.
Case in point, I asked a client to send out a second direct mail ask to follow up on all those who did not give to the first. And, lo and behold, the response has been tremendous. So enormous, in fact, that the client wrote back and said, “The results have been pretty unbelievable for us, believe me!
I once had a phrase that I would use quite often, “You must A S K to G E T!” And, that is true.
As we move forward into the upcoming holiday giving season, think about your strategy. You will be competing with every other nonprofit group who is sending out their calendar year-end direct mail piece at the same time. The competition will be stiff. How are you going to stand out? How are you going to assure that your donors will read your letter among all of the other letters? And, what is your strategy for follow-up? Will you ask more than once? What forms will that “ask” take? How will you leverage the December 31 tax deadline as an incentive to give?
I know one thing is for sure, this calendar year-end, if you only ask once, you are doing your donors an injustice. They want to give, and they want to give to you. But, your ask must be heard and, that it is the right ask, for the right project, at the right time.
Now, craft a plan that includes multiple year-end asks!
Lately, I have been doing a lot of driving. And, as a result, a lot of thinking. I have clients all throughout the Northeast. And, sometimes, yes, the driving does get “old.” But, then I sit back and reflect.
You see, there are many different types of fundraising consultants. And, lately, I have been hearing a great deal about “remote,” “outsourced” development professionals as opposed to the strategic “tell me what to do” consultants that produce a plan and then move onto to the next client. I do consider myself one of these, in fact, all of these.
But, perhaps I am old-fashioned. Or maybe I just have been working in the field too long. I remember, long ago, when there were resident consultants who upped and moved to different parts of the country to live and work at a nonprofit and become immersed in their community.
And, while I don’t up and move, I do spend lots of time on the move. I think – no, wait, I believe it is critical to the success of my client’s efforts. Yes, many of the things that I do while sitting in their organization can be done quite easily from home. But, it is not the same.
Two weeks ago on my blog, I noted how “culture of place” is such an important part of our work. How can you get to know and understand that “culture of place” if you are working remotely? Or for that measure, how can you understand the mission and culture of the nonprofit that you are working for if you never sit at a desk and be a part of all that happens on a day to day basis. What does this have to do with fundraising? A lot!
It makes a big difference to the quality of work. When I am onsite, I am a strong reminder to the client that we need to focus and get work done. So, a lot of work gets done. When I am not directly onsite, and I work remotely, it seems like work moves at a snail’s pace. Emails are not answered with urgency, and meetings are postponed. I get it. I fall to the bottom of the list. Very different than having a living, breathing person taking up precious space/rent or whatever you call it in your office as a good reminder.
And, the kinds of things that I do go far beyond just providing advice. I do the work. I craft appeal letters; write newsletter content, solicit donors, write Case for Supports, write grants, work on board development, manage capital campaigns, conduct feasibility studies and audits, on and on and on.
So, when you are thinking about consultants – yes, personality is important – yes, credentials and experience are important, but, don’t overlook the consultant’s personal philosophy of service provision. Will they go the distance, sometimes hundreds of miles at a time, to live in hotels, to get your work done and to understand the context, both internally and externally, in which your work happens?
We don’t expect our staff development professionals to be in the office behind their desks, so why would you expect the same of a fund development consultant? They need to be building relationships with organizations to create impact – just as fundraising professionals must be with donors. It is just another extension of this donor-centered relationship – creating results and positive outcomes for a mission.
While the old models of “in-residence, uproot you and your family” are not so available today, I believe that my unique model of in-residence consulting of a set number of days per week/month onsite is an excellent compromise. And, hey while I toot my own horn, my model makes a huge difference to my clients and sets me apart from the rest of the bunch.
See you on I95 or maybe I89 or maybe Rt 66. But, you can be sure of one thing, you won’t see me sitting at my desk at home.
P.S. – Yes, these are photos from my travel. When I say I get immersed in a community that I am working in, I do. On a recent stay in a client’s town, I did go to the “Cow Barn” for milk for breakfast. And, that stretch of road is I91 heading into a client’s town in Vermont from another client located in the Stamford area of CT.
There is so much science behind fund development. You can study it, take courses in it, and read books on it. Campaigns have become honed regarding best practices; there are easy steps to put into place, materials to be created, and people to be engaged.
The one thing that I have come to realize, though, is that one part of fundraising is science and the other is art. And, what is that other? Well as a regional consultant, one thing that I notice that makes a tremendous difference is the culture of place. That is why I firmly believe that consultants need to adopt the old “in residence” model. They need to live and breathe a community and get to know and understand its nuances. Then and only then will a campaign be successful.
Currently, I have three different clients from three distinct geographic areas. One is for the Stamford area of Connecticut, one is from the Greater Providence area, and the other is from a rural village in Vermont. I could not stress the dichotomy between these clients and it all has to do with the culture of place.
In Connecticut, life is fast-paced and hectic. Projects move quickly. And, the population is so very significant that one tends to blend in with the community without being noticed. In Rhode Island, everyone knows everyone; it is the smallest state in the Union. There is a high degree of competition for funding from a limited donor pool, and people treat each other like family. It is all about who you know. In Vermont, very different. Life in a village is remote. The nearest store is 45 minutes away, sometimes up and over the mountain, you rely on and bond with your neighbor, and it is not about who you know, it is about what you know about those that you know.
Culture of place. If you don’t begin to understand it, you will not be successful. The culture of place is how fundraising art meets science, and the magic of campaign success happens. Ignore it and try to forge ahead without addressing or understanding, and your campaign is doomed to fail.
For those nonprofit organizations wanting to hire someone who works from a remote location and who will not commit to finding someone who can spend time “in residence” then think again. While all the degrees in the world, equate to know how it does equate to campaign success. An understanding of the culture of place does.
So, who leads the governance process? Is it the Board? Is it the staff?
I wondered to what role does the staff or Board play in shifting a culture that is not longer useful? In fact, sometimes a management culture can be downright disruptive after an organization has reached a particular place in its life cycle.
Is it completely the Board or entirely the staff who need to make these adjustments? Where does governance fall? Who is responsible for the governance process? Who is responsible for being a change agent on the Board level?
Well, I propose that it is a combination of both. In many cases, the Board itself realizes that it needs to change how it has been operating. Other times, the Board chair comes into his or her term and wants to shift the culture of the Board. So, Board driven is an option.
Other times, it is the staff itself who must start this shift. How the heck does the staff even begin to change a culture on the Board. Well, I thought about it. And, I turned to the writings of Simone Joyaux, internationally known fundraising consultant. You see, many years ago, I remember reading Simone talking about the concept enabling. And, I believe this is how it all happens.
She purports that, “Enabling is one of the most critical functions within a philanthropic organization…It is the essential role of the chief executive and development officer.” Enabling is empowering others to take action.
All organizations face changing sets of circumstances. Simone notes that “Enablers know that roles may change, depending on the particular situation or its possible implications.” As organizations move from infancy to maturing, so does their Board move from management to governance.
The staff has the biggest responsibility to enable others. But, in a great many cases, don’t see or understand that. And, trouble begins. A CEO may not know why or how a Board is treating them such and throws up their hands in frustration without realizing that they can take an active part in leading their Board to greater understanding and acting. A Chief Development Officer decides to quit after the Executive Director places undue expectations on them without realizing they have a part in leading up with their manager to understand fund development.
We all know that many a development director or CEO have quit over lack of support or because of frustration in their jobs.
So, how do we get the Board to move from management to governance? Get them out of the minutia into the strategic?
So, how does staff enable the Board to understand and support a move towards governance at a higher level?
In essence, it is the CEO’s job to be a leader and as a result, they need to be an active enabler. The CEO and management team own culture. As a result, boards tend to give the issue of culture a wide berth, expecting the CEO to raise cultural issues when needed.
Well, as a CEO here are some steps that you can take:
Helping to adjust agenda’s with the Board chair to focus on more strategic issues rather than operational.
Managing Board meetings to keep the discussion focused on bigger picture items.
Changing Board committee structures are moving from volunteer tasks to governance concerns.
Provide thoughtful training and conversation on Board governance and what it is.
Enlist the support of Board members who understand and support a change to facilitate change amongst others on the Board level.
Assist in developing performance expectations and new job descriptions focused on Board governance.
Initiate a Board self-assessment governance survey and discussion.
Evaluate the composition of the Board and make recommendations to bring on Board members who will align with a new corporate culture.
Develop shared governance language or framework to discuss culture.
CEO’s need to be strong leaders. And, the hallmark of a strong leader is the ability to enable others to take action. CEO’s need to do this with their staff and with volunteers above and below them. They can’t hold up their hands in frustration and decide that corporate culture is not theirs to influence. In fact, in many cases, they are the only ones who can make those changes.
This need becomes an especially critical as the organization moves from infancy to maturity, and beyond in its life cycle. You need to have strong leadership who can navigate these tumultuous changes and foster a shared vision of the future; changing culture in an organization whether at the Board or staff level or even both is an action of a leader.
When seeking leadership, in particular for a growing organization, be sure that you identify at what stage your organization is in, what your particular organizational needs are, and the type of leader who can help you manage and transition the organization to its future.
We often talk about banning jargon when we speak to others about our organization. And, that is so needed. But, I would like to take it one step further, and say that we are not here to “educate” our donors about what we do.
They don’t care about the specifics.
There, I said it. Truly, your donors don’t. Just think about your experiences. When I call an electrician to fix an electrical problem in my house, I don’t want him to explain all of the mechanics of electricity or what is wrong with my particular situation. Right? Tell me basically what is wrong, how you are going to fix it, and how much it is going to cost. Don’t share with me black to black, and red to red, and copper to copper, I don’t want to know. It is actually beyond me.
So, when you have a particular project, do you think that donors want to know every little nitty gritty detail? I hardly doubt so. For the fact of the matter is, they should have a relationship with your organization before you even ask them to give and if they have a relationship with your organization, then they should TRUST you and TRUST that if they invest in you, you will know what to do with their investment. In fact, they believe that you are the expert in whatever part of the sector your serving. You can’t expect your donor to know all about the legalities surrounding domestic violence victims or child custody cases; they expect you to know and to do that.
So, when you are meeting with a donor and sharing a particular project or even your organization and what it does, spare them the details. Give them the picture of why you, why now, and for what? Otherwise, if you share too much, you will lose your donor in the process.
We get so carried away in our “internal” thinking that we fail to see a contributor as a donor as a person. We talk as if they are supposed to know what we are referring to; we use language and jargon to paint portraits of projects, and we go and on and on sharing minutia with them. It is time to stop and think about your experience with your mechanic, or your plumber, or your electrician, or any other expert that you have hired. What do you need to know, what do you want to know, and what is it going to cost you.
The adage “keep it simple,” reigns true here. Donors expect YOU to be the expert, not them. So, don’t shroud them in jargon and details and minutia. Just share with them what is wrong, how you are going to fix, and how much it is going to cost. Simple.
Last week, I noted how all-volunteer and small staffed organizations must engage in governance at the Board level. I pointed out that one of the first steps is to secure commitment to change. Some groups may not want to change and need to wrestle with the question of “what does not changing mean for our organization?” You can read that article here.
Others on the other hand do. So, after they gain consensus and commitment to changing, one of the next natural steps to creating this cultural shift on the board level is to look at the Board’s position descriptions. Now, I must say, this is where the dialogue gets quiet for my me and my client. For you see, I find that many have some form of a Board member expectation outline, simple as they may be, but lack a basic Board of Directors position description.
How can that be? I am not sure. I think that sometimes, perhaps groups don’t understand the full role of the Board and therefore don’t design a position description outlining the roles and responsibilities of a Board. On the other hand, some Boards by design, especially smaller nonprofit organizations, create Board positions to assist in getting the day-to-day organizational work complete, and the Board mainly functions as a management/volunteer rather than as a governance focused Board.
Just like in the “real” world, we wouldn’t expect to hire someone or to take a job that does not have a position description. The case is the same here. Why would we expect a Board member to come on Board without outlining for them their duties and responsibilities and sharing that with them? The Board holds one of the largest, if not THE most important role within an organization. In fact, the “buck” stops with the Board. How do you assess and release Board members if they or you haven’t defined that role for them?
And, we wonder why Boards are not functioning the way we want or expect them to. We haven’t begun to identify the parameters of what that work entails. We expect Board members to come on board fully engaged and knowing of their responsibilities, and when they don’t, we get frustrated and upset with our Board’s performance.
So, after seeking consensus and commitment, an organization must move to defining what a Board member’s role is and formalize and adopt this position description outlining functions and responsibilities. From there, you can design, based on the culture and needs of your organization, individual Board member expectations regarding their participation in a wide variety of organizational matters including, most importantly, fund development.
We all know that there is a difference between a Board of Directors as a collective unit and an individual Board member, right?